Gudrun Wolfschmidt: A Historian Looks at Astronomy in the Classroom.

The Uses of History in Science Education

The Third International Seminar for the
History of Science and Science Education

Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany

July 30 - August 4, 2000
Gudrun Wolfschmidt
Institut für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, Mathematik und Technik,
Universität Hamburg - Fachbereich 11 Mathematik

A Historian Looks at
Astronomy in the Classroom

There are more things in heaven and earth
than are dreamt of in your philosophy.
                                Shakespeare: Hamlet

Astronomy is the oldest science. Observing the stars and planets has always been important e.g. for time determination or for calendar making. We find great interest in astronomical questions in ancient cultures as well as in more recent centuries.

In spite of the great significance of astronomy to our culture it is not generally considered to be an appropriate school topic. In Germany, astronomy as such is in the official 'Gymnasium' curriculum in only a few 'Länder' - Bavaria and some in eastern Germany. But it would be possible to include astronomy in the teaching of physics, geography, mathematics and other subjects. By using the history of astronomy one could present the topics in an even more interesting and motivating way for a broader range of pupils. I think this should start in the beginning years of the 'Gymnasium'. Furthermore, with interdisciplinary teaching one could combine science with cultural history.

Here I give a concrete example of a subject which lends itself to such an interdisciplinary approach - sundials.

After an introduction dealing with antiquity and the Middle Ages, I shall present three sundial examples drawn essentially from the Early Modern period (roughly 15th-17th centuries). I think it is useful to supplement book-learning with practical work - i.e. making such instruments and learning to use them. This can be rounded out by a visit to a museum to see original instruments or by a walk through town to find sundials.

I have chosen the construction of sundials according to Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) [Vnderweysung der messung, Nuremberg 1525], then the making of some of Peter Apian's (1495-1552) instruments such as those described in his 'Instrument Buch' [Ingolstadt 1533], and finally Georg Philipp Harsdörffer's (1607-1658) 'Erquickstunden' [Nuremberg 1636, 1651].


  1. Sundials of antiquity and the Middle Ages
    • Greek and Roman sundials
    • Medieval sundials
  2. Renaissance sundials and their construction
  3. Apian's instruments
    • Apian's `Instrument Buch' (1533)
    • Apian's torquetum
  4. Baroque sundials, science and poetry
    • Examples of Baroque sundials
    • The poet Harsdörffer and the `Pegnesischer Blumenorden'
  5. Footnotes

1  Sundials of antiquity and the Middle Ages

One can start with an overview of the development of sundials from the simple gnomon in ancient times until the interesting sundials of the 16th century.

1.1  Greek and Roman sundials

The easiest way of determining the time (instead of using a gnomon) is to measure one's own shadow with one's feet - knowing that the body is about seven times as high as the foot is long.

Herodotus (490-425 B.C.) writes that it is from the Babylonians that the Greeks became acquainted with the gnomon and acquired other astronomical knowledge. Anaximander of Miletus (610-547 B.C.), a pupil of Thales, was probably the first Greek to determine the solstices with a gnomon.1

Vitruvius (died 25 B.C.) described the making of sundials; he discussed different types of small portable sundials but also monumental sundials (constructed for a particular latitude) which were based on Egyptian ideas. About 100 Hellenistic sundials have been excavated.

The Roman emperor Augustus ordered a 6th-century-B.C. obelisk to be brought from Heliopolis in Egypt to Rome where it was erected on the Campus Martius.2 The final construction, due to the mathematician Facundus Novius, is called the Horologium Augusti. The hours were marked with gilt bronze lines on the stone plates, as was reported by the Roman writer Pliny the Elder (Naturalis Historiae 36, 72). In 1980 parts of the meridian line were discovered.3

The sundials of antiquity were fundamentally different from our more recent sundials, e.g. on churches. On the plane surface of modern sundials the end point of the shadow moves at a variable speed. This is the reason why in ancient times one preferred to use spherical surfaces, on which the shadow moved at a constant rate. This hollow-sphere sundial is called a scaphe. The tip of the gnomon was in the centre of the sphere. During each day, the shadow cast on the scaphe follows a path which is different for the different months of the year.

Fig. 1

Scaphe - hollow-sphere sundial - construction principles
(Island Samos, reconstructed in 1957,
cf. Gibbs 1972, p. 44)

With such sundials one could read not only the time of day, as with the Egyptian sundials, but also the date of the year; i.e. the scaphe also represents a calendar. The time of day could be read from the direction of the shadow in the hollow sphere, the date from the position of the end point of the shadow on a circle which represents a month (the position of the sun during the year is marked by the 'length' of the shadow).

The construction of such sundials was rather complicated and it is not astonishing that famous mathematicians like Apollonius of Perga were often among the makers.

Aristarchos of Samos (320-250 B.C.) suggested that the earth turns around the sun in a tilted plane; the angle between these planes - the equator and the ecliptic - can be determined with a sundial. Aristarchos is said to have constructed the first plane sundial. Otto Neugebauer even proposed that the development of the plane sundial promoted the discovery of the conic sections (Apollonius of Perga).4

Inside the octagonal Tower of the Winds in Athens - built in 75 B.C. by the Macedonian surveyor A. Kyrrhestes - there was a water clock (clepshydra), and on each of the sides a plane sundial. According to Vitruvius the sundials were constructed by the Macedonian astronomer Andronicus.

Vitruvius described ten different sundials in his work 'De architectura' (25 B.C.). The first sundial in Rome was set up in 293 B.C.; thirty years later, in 263 B.C., another sundial came to Rome from Catania in Sicily, thanks to Consul Valerius Messala. This confiscated Greek sundial was erected on the Campus Martius without recognizing the error due to the difference in latitude of 4.5°. The number of sundials did not increase until 164 B.C. Most were of Greek origin as the inscriptions indicate. Also at this time there existed portable pocket sundials for travel, called viatoria, and sundials on necklaces.5

1.2  Medieval sundials

Islam required praying five times a day, and this triggered an interest in determining the time. Basic works on making sundials came from T¯abit ibn Qurra (826-921), ibn Y¯unus (died 1009) and al-Batt¯an¯i (died 929).

The Venerable Bede (673-735) and Hrabanus Maurus (ca. 800) also described sundials. Time keeping was important for monasteries. Medieval sundials can be found on some cathedrals and monasteries; the oldest in Germany, made around 822 A.D., is at the Michaelis church in Fulda. Other famous examples can be found at the cathedral in Strasbourg.

Fig. 2

Sundial with eight dial markings, Michaelis church, Fulda, 822 A.D.
(Zinner 1956, Tafel II, Fig. 12.)

There are different dial markings; there existed a division into eight instead of twelve hours, going back to the north Germanic or Viking traditions. The construction of eight hours was inspired by the cardinal points and the related eight winds. Sól skifa was the name of a sundial, a horizontal plate with a perpendicular stick.6

In these early times the construction of sundials was often wrong - for example with equidistant hour marks. One often sees in pre-1500 sundials that the stick is not directed towards the pole, according to the latitude, but sticks out perpendicularly.

Since the 14th century clocks with striking hours were installed in churches, towers and city halls.

Fig. 3

Tower clock of St. Sebald in Nuremberg with striking hours, 15th century
(Focus Behaim Globus 1992, p. 623.)

This use of clocks initiated the transition from unequal hours ('Temporalstunden' - day and night were each 12 hours long, so for example summer daylight hours were longer than summer nighttime hours) to the 24 equal hours (equinoctial hours) of Early Modern times. An early sundial with this modern system of equal hours exists at the St. Blasius Cathedral in Braunschweig.

2  Renaissance sundials and their construction

Well known artists and engravers dealt with the geometrical construction and making of sundials. The famous painter Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) presented a classical drawing with a detailed method for the construction of sundials using compass and straightedge. He published it in 1525 in his 'Vnderweysung der messung' (Teaching of measuring)7 - which introduced and explained perspective drawing for artists.

Fig. 4

Dürer's construction of a sundial, Nuremberg 1525
Dürer, Albrecht: Vnderweysung der messung. Nuremberg 1525, p. 23.

He presented drawings for making a sundial based on Euclid and Vitruvius with an equatorial, horizontal and vertical dial. These can be transformed to a description for construction nowadays.

Fig. 5

Dürer's method of construction of a sundial for schoolchildren
Wolfschmidt 1990, p.~66.

It is possible to prepare this construction of Dürer's sundial for pupils as young as about twelve, when they start learning geometry in the seventh class of Gymnasium.8

Fig. 6

Pupils of the Heisenberg Gymnasium in Garching
near Munich, testing the homemade sundials

(Slide Wolfschmidt)

The modern sundial in the 16th century with a pole stick and hour lines was first painted on southern walls or carved in stone.9 The pole stick was not known in the Occident before 1500.

Johannes Werner (1468-1522) studied in Ingolstadt in 1484 and in Rome in 1493-97. Then he was a pastor and mathematician in his home town, Nuremberg. He improved the cross staff. In 1502 Werner - in collaboration with Johannes Stabius from Austria - constructed the large sundial at the eastern choir of the Lorenz church in Nuremberg.

Fig. 7

Sundial at the eastern choir
of the Lorenz church in Nuremberg, 1502
horizontal: curves of the duration of the day
vertical: lines for the normal hours
short lines: Nuremberg unequal hours.

(Zinner 1956, p. 70.)

From the first two in 1499 and 1502, throughout the Renaissance and Baroque periods until 1786, Nuremberg was a centre for the design and the construction of sundials; a total of 73 sundials existed there:10
Number location of sundials in Nuremberg 1499-1786
4 public buildings
1 castle of Nuremberg
14 castles ('Herrensitze') of Nuremberg noblemen
25 houses/buildings of burgers
2 city fortification
19 churches
6 church related buildings such as monasteries

Georg Peurbach (1423-1461) discovered the deviation of the compass.11 The earliest tablet dial ('Klapp-Sonnenuhr') with a compass and with indicated deviation originates from Peurbach (around 1451). A tablet dial consists of two small sundials (horizontal and a vertical direct-south dial) hinged together with a common gnomon; the instrument can be folded at the hinge and then fits in the pocket.

Fig. 8

Diptych sundial, Georg Hartmann (1489-1564),
Nuremberg 1533

(Gouk 1988, p. 92.)

In the Early Modern Period, the sundial makers were also compass makers. The famous centres for making sundials were Nuremberg and Augsburg.12

Fig. 9

Compass maker Hans Tucher (1541),
Hausbuch der Mendelschen Zwölfbrüder-Stiftung
II, fol. 108v, Nuremberg)

(Gouk 1988, p. 81, plate X [Original: Nuremberg Stadtbibliothek].)

Sebastian Münster (1488-1552), protestant theologian and cosmographer, began his studies in Heidelberg, and from 1515 studied mathematics and physics with Johann Stöffler as his professor in Tübingen. In 1524 he became professor of Hebrew in Heidelberg. He wrote several publications concerning sundials:

Fig. 10b

Sebastian Münster's `Horologiographia', Basel 1533

Fig. 10a

Homemade tablet dial
(Slide Wolfschmidt, film 430, no. 33)

Andreas Schöner (1528-1590), the son of Johann Schöner who made the first celestial globe of Early Modern times, was court mathematician to Landgraf Wilhelm IV (1534-1594) of Hesse, praised by Tycho Brahe as the most important astronomer in Europe of that time. He published two books on sundials:

Fig. 11

Andreas Schöner's Gnomonice (1562), enclosed:
Sebastian Münster's ``Rudimenta mathematica''.

(Crawford Library, Royal Observatory Edinburgh)

There exist several annular astronomical instruments (ring dials, astronomical rings) which represent the various circles employed by astronomers in imposing their geometry on the heavens.13 They range from the complex armillary sphere and the meteoroscope of Regiomontanus to the everyday ring dial. The ring dial was invented by Hermannus Contractus (1013-1054), Benedictine monk in the Reichenau monastery on Lake Constance ('Bodensee'). The hour-lines are projected, for date and solar altitude at a given latitude, onto the inner surface of a broad ring.

Fig. 12a

Ring dials
(Slide Wolfschmidt, film 320, no. 28)
[or Gibbs 1976, p. 41.]

The term astronomer's ring refers mostly to a portable equatorial instrument having hinged meridian, equinoctial and declination circles, described by Rainer Gemma Frisius (1508-1555). It can be used as a universal sundial.

Fig. 12b

Construction of a ring dials
[Gibbs 1976, p. 41.]

Very similar to the astronomer's ring is the portable universal equatorial instrument, easily used as a sundial, invented by Johann Dryander or Eichmann (1500-1560). It consists of three rings: a meridian ring with a suspension adjustable for latitude, an equinoctial and a declination ring.

Giovanni Paolo Gallucci (1538-1621?), born in Salò, published several books on astronomy and especially instrumentation:

Fig. 13

Cylinder or pillar dial
Mayall, R. Newton; Mayall, Margaret W.: Sundials -
their construction and use. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover 1994, p. 163.

Gallucci's cylinder or pillar dial with the projection of solar altitude against date for a particular latitude which is wrapped round the cylinder, was computed according to the following formula:

L = S × tan a
where L is the length of the shadow, S the length of the stick and a the height of the sun. The length of the shadow varies with the date. This pillar dial is not very critical against changing latitude.

3  Apian's instruments

Before I introduce Apian's instruments I would like to make a few remarks concerning cultural history. The connection between science, art and humanities is important for interdisciplinary teaching. Making and using sundials and astronomical instruments and learning about the historical background offers a good example for a subject of interdisciplinarity. Renaissance culture includes the rebirth of the culture of classical antiquity, and the importance of the individual: 'man is the measure of all things'. Examples of historical background events which can be discussed are: the discovery of America, the Reformation, the new astronomical world view and technological innovations like book printing.

Peter Apian14 (1495-1552), professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Ingolstadt in Bavaria, was an exemplification of the Renaissance humanist. He is famous for his discovery that the tails of comets are directed away from the sun.

Fig. 14a

Peter Apian (1495-1552)
Icones sive imagines virorum literis illustrium. Frankfurt 1719.
(Vgl. Röttel 1995, p. 222.)

Fig. 14b

Peter Apian (1495-1552)
(Cf. Röttel 1995, Cover.)

In addition, Apian was interested in spreading astronomical knowledge. In several publications (some in German and not only in Latin) he taught a larger public how to build instruments (out of wood and paper rather than metal) and how to use them.

3.1  Apian's `Instrument Buch' (1533)

Fig. 15a

Measuring with quadrants (left),
with cross staff (middle)
and with nocturnal (right)

Instrument Buch. Ingolstadt 1533, Frontispiz.

Thus Apian is also well known as a constructor of astronomical and geodetic instruments. He described several instruments, e.g. the quadrant, the torquetum and several sundials, in his

Fig. 15b

Geodetic measurements
Cornelis de Judaeis; Levinus Hulsius:
De quadrante geometrico libellus.
Nuremberg: Christopher Lochner 1594.

Fig. 16

Homemade quadrant
(Slide Wolfschmidt)

Fig. 17

Pupils of the Heisenberg Gymnasium in Garching near Munich, measuring with an Apian quadrant
(Slide Wolfschmidt)

Measuring the time was an important task. For this purpose Apian invented the solar quadrant (quadrans astronomicus).15

Fig. 18

Apian's solar quadrant for measuring the time of day.
Apian, Peter: Instrument Buch. Ingolstadt 1533.

This small quadrant was held in the hand to measure the altitude of the sun and then - with the scale - the time could be found. Apian made precise drawings for different latitudes from 41° to 52° degrees. Inside of the instrument you find the curves of the unequal hours ('planet hours', 'Jewish hours', 'Italian hours' or 'Nuremberg hours' - usual until the Middle Ages), and in the outer scale the equal hours (24 hours measured by European clocks).

Fig. 19

Apian's nocturnal for finding the local time at night.
Apian, Peter: Cosmographia. Antwerpen 1584, p. 192.

3.2  Apian's torquetum

Especially interesting is the torquetum, a rare instrument, of which Apian published a description in Nuremberg, in 1532.16 He used it for observing comets - as Regiomontanus in 1472 and Peter of Limoges in 1299 had done before. The principle of the torquetum, a universal instrument for measuring the coordinates of the stars in three different systems, goes back to Gabir ibn Aflah (11th/12th centuries) of Seville ('Machina collectitia Gebri Hispalensis') and was described in detail by Franco de Polonia in 1284 ('turcetum'). The two early torqueta in Bernkastel-Kues and in Cracow trace back to the Middle Ages. Only a few more instruments survived in Nuremberg, Bamberg, Kassel, Hamburg, Munich, Dresden, Königsberg, and Brussels - some made by Erasmus Habermel (died 1606). Because of their difficult design, Tycho Brahe did not consider them to be precision instruments; this may explain their relatively low numbers.

Fig. 20

Apian's torquetum with horizontal plane,
equatorial plane and zodiacal plane

Apian, Peter: Astronomicum Caesareum. Ingolstadt 1540.

4  Baroque sundials, science and poetry

In contrast to the Renaissance and Humanism, one was no longer looking at earthly life and designing a secularised world view but - due to the counter-reformation exemplified by the Galileo trial - the death and the hereafter became omnipresent in daily life.

German Baroque literature also reflects these ideas of 'memento mori', for example the notion of vanity ('Vergänglichkeit'), used by Andreas Gryphius, the most famous poet of that time. In contrast to showing a paradise on earth, pastoral poetry (shepherd poetry, 'Schäferdichtung') was invented and applied, for example by Martin Opitz17 (1597-1639). The idea of this non-pessimistic version of ideas was 'carpe diem' (seize the day), enjoy your time on earth!

4.1  Examples of Baroque sundials

In the Baroque period mechanical clocks and watches were already widespread. But, especially as an ornament of palace gardens, artistically decorated sundials were made too. Based on mathematics, complicated sundials on cubes, polygonal planes, cylinders and hollow bodies were designed. Even things of daily life like drinking mugs or crucifixes and grave stones were decorated with sundials.

Fig. 21

Polygonal sundial, designed by Albrecht Dürer
Dürer, Albrecht: Vnderweysung der messung.
Nürnberg 1525, Fig. 25.

Johann Christoph Volkamer's18 (1644-1720)

was one important example of a Baroque garden, called 'Hesperiden-Garten', in Nuremberg. Many of the nobility had their Baroque gardens in the suburb of Johannis; some are still to be seen. Volkamer gave detailed instructions on how to make a sundial for the Baroque garden.

Fig. 22

'Hesperides' - Nuremberg Baroque garden (with sundial)
Volkamer 1708, 1987, p.~156a.

Many sundials in today's cities have disappeared; some are renovated or repainted.19 But you can find many in engravings of the 17th and 18th century. In the case of Nuremberg, one should mention at least two persons:

Fig. 23

View from `Fleischbrücke' in Nuremberg to the castle;
on the left hand side you can recognize three sundials.

4.2  The poet Harsdörffer and the 'Pegnesischer Blumenorden'

Georg Philipp Harsdörffer22 (1607-1658) was also, like Gryphius and Opitz, a prominent example of a Baroque poet, but he was also a scientist. He had studied philology, mathematics and law in Altdorf (Nuremberg's university) and Strasbourg. At his death he had published fifty volumes under the title 'carpe diem'. With his other famous titles like 'Frauenzimmer-Gespräche' (Science for ladies in dialogue form) he began the popularization of science.

One of his poems deals with the sundial:

Der Mensch ist gleich einer Sonnenuhr/
welche nicht dienen kan/
ohn der Sonnenglantz/
wie er ohne himlische Erleuchtung seinen Nechsten
nicht pfleget zu nutzen.

An unusual sundial was described in Vol. 3 of

This was a 'noon canon', where the firing of a small canon is set off by a burning glass at 12 o'clock. Athanasius Kircher had already designed a sundial which struck the hours. The sun's rays are focussed by a glass sphere and ignite gunpowder, which triggers hammers on bells at various hours.24

Fig. 24

Sundial which strikes hours
Kircher 1645, reprinted: Harsdörffer 1651,
Der IV. Theil: Von der Sternkundigung und Uhrkunst, p. 318.

In 1644 Harsdörffer founded the 'Pegnesischer Blumenorden'25 (flower order at the river Pegnitz), besides the 'Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft' or 'Palm-Orden'26 the oldest German literary society for the cultivation of the high German language. In 1676/81 began the meetings of the 'Pegnesischer Blumenorden' in the 'Irrgarten' (labyrinth) near Neunhof, a suburb of Nuremberg. It is today the oldest surviving literary society.27

Fig. 25

Coat of arms of the
'Pegnesischer Blumenorden' in Nuremberg

(Kügel 1998)

Bereits lange vor der Barockdichtung hatte der europäische Humanismus ein durchgearbeitetes System von rhetorischen Formen, Sprachbildern, Metaphern und Sentenzen entwickelt. In den humanistischen Gymnasien des 16. Jahrhunderts wurde im Latein vor allem Rhetorik getrieben, also die Kunst des formvollendeten, sicheren Gebrauchs von Sprache und Ausdruck. Man lehnte sich dabei an die Sprachdenkmäler der Antike, deren Stil und Eleganz man nachahmen wollte. Dabei kam es nicht so sehr auf die Sache an, sondern vielmehr auf Formulierung, Stilfiguren und rhetorische Ausschmückung, kurz: die formalen Aspekte standen eindeutig im Vordergrund. Diese Überbetonung der formalen Seite, verbunden mit der Forderung, daß der Dichter des Barock ein vielbelesener Mann sein müsse, führte zwangsläufig zu der Folgerung, daß Dichtkunst durchaus erlernbar sei.28

Particularly famous was Harsdörffer's 'Poetischer Trichter'29 (poetic funnel, 1646/47). With his 'Denckring des Teutschen'30 thinking ring of German language, 1651) he tried to show that everybody is able to compose poems and presented an instrument with which, by the turning of five plates fitting together, appropriate rhymes could be found.

Fig. 26

Nuremberg funnel
Harsdörffer, Georg Philipp: Poetischer Trichter.
Nuremberg 1648-1653

(cf. Das Nürnberger Quizbuch.
Nuremberg Gruber & Raabe 1982, p. 2.)

Harsdörffer's idea of the Nuremberg funnel and its application in didactics has survived until today, as in the word 'eintrichtern' - to drum something into somebody.31


1Gibbs, Sharon: Greek and Roman Sundials. New Haven: Yale University Press 1976.

2Buchner, Edmund: Die Sonnenuhr des Augustus. Mainz 1982. Schütz, Michael: Zur Sonnenuhr des Augustus auf dem Marsfeld. In: Gymnasium 97 (1990), 432-457.

3Schütz, Michael: Der Obelisk des Augustus. In: Sterne und Weltraum 27 (1988), 575-577.

4Neugebauer, Otto: The Astronomical Origin of the Theory of Conic Sections. In: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 92 (1948), p. 136-138.

5Price, Derek J. de Solla: Portable Sundials in Antiquity. In: Centaurus 14 (1969), 242-266.

6Zinner, Ernst: Alte Sonnenuhren an europäischen Gebäuden. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner (Boethius Band III) 1964.

7Dürer, Albrecht: Vnderweysung der messung / mit dem zirckel vn richtscheyt / in Linien ebnen unnd gantzen corporen. Nuremberg 1525. Reprint: Nördlingen: Verlag Dr. Alfons Uhl 1983.

8Wolfschmidt, Gudrun: Astronomie in Vertretungsstunden. München: Referendarvertretung des Bayerischen Philologenverbands (Beiträge zur Gymnasialpädagogik 17) 1990, p. 66.

9Zinner, Ernst: Deutsche und niederländische astronomische Instrumente des 11.-18. Jahrhunderts. München: C.H. Beck 1956, 2nd ed. 1967. Reprint: 1979.

10Pilz, Kurt: 600 Jahre Astronomie in Nürnberg. Nuremberg: Hans Carl 1977.

11Hamann, Günther; Grössing, Hellmuth (Hrsg.): Der Weg der Naturwissenschaft von Johannes von Gmunden zu Johannes Kepler. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Sitzungsberichte phil.-hist. Kl., 497. Band, Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Geschichte der Mathematik, Naturwissenschaft und Medizin, Band 46) 1988.

12Gouk, Penelope: The Ivory Sundials of Nuremberg 1500-1700. Cambridge: Whipple Museum of the History of Science 1988.

13Waugh, Albert E.: Sundials - their theory and construction. New York: Dover 1973.

14Wolfschmidt, Gudrun: Planeten, Kometen, Finsternisse - Peter Apian als Astronom und Instrumentenbauer. In: Röttel, Karl (Hrsg.): Peter Apian - 500. Geburtstag. Begleitbuch zur Ausstellung im Stadtmuseum Ingolstadt. Ingolstadt 1995.

15Syndram, Dirk: Wissenschaftliche Instrumente und Sonnenuhren. Kunstgewerbesammlung der Stadt Bielefeld - Stiftung Huelsmann. München: Callwey 1989, p. 22-23, Willers, Johannes; Holzamer, Karin: Schätze der Astronomie. Arabische und deutsche Instrumente aus dem Germanischen Nationalmuseum. Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum 1983, p. 60-61, Dreier, Franz Adrian: Winkelmeßinstrumente. Vom 16. bis zum frühen 19. Jahrhundert. (Katalog) Berlin: Kunstgewerbemuseum 1979, p. 28-29. A later solar quadrant, designed by Johannes Praetorius, is in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg (Inv.-Nr. WI 12), made by Hans Epischofer, Nuremberg 1571, height 98 cm, Willers/Holzamer 1983, p. 82-83.

16Apian, Peter: Ein kurtzer bericht... des... Cometen... dises XXXII. Jars... Ingolstadt 1532.

17Opitz, Martin: Das Buch von der deutschen Poeterey. Teutsche Poemata, Gedichte (Reclam 361). Studies by Syrocki and Ulmer.

18Volkamer, J. C.: Nürnbergische Hesperides oder Gründliche Beschreibung Der Edlen Citronat/ Citronen/ und Pomerantzen-Fruechte/ Wie solche/ in selbiger und benachbarten Gegend/ recht moegen eingesetzt/ gewartet/ erhalten und fortgebracht werden/ Samt einer ausfuehrlichen Erzehlung der meisten Sorten/ welche theils zu Nuernberg wuercklich gewachsen/ theils von verschiedenen fremden Orten dahin gebracht worden/ Auf das accurateste in Kupffer gestochen/ in Vier Theiel eingetheilet und mit nuetzlichen Anmerkungen erklaeret. Beneben der FLORA, Oder Curiosen Vorstellung Verschiedener raren Blumen/ Samt Einer Zugabe etlicher anderer Gewaechse/ und ausfuehrlichem Bericht/ wie eine richtig zutreffende Sonnen-Uhr im Garten-Feld von Bux anzulegen/ und die Gaerten nach der Perspectiv leichtlich aufzureissen/ Wie auch einem Bericht von denen in des Authoris Garten stehenden COLVMNIS MILLIARIBVS. Nuremberg: Johann Andreae Endters seel. Sohn und Erben [Faksimile: Hrsg. von Harri Günther. Mit einem Nachwort von Heinrich Hamann. Edition Leipzig - Lizenzausgabe für Verlag Dr. Richter, München 1987].

19Philipp, Hugo; Roth, Daniel; Bachmann, Willy: Sonnenuhren - Deutschland und Schweiz. Ditzingen: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chronometrie 1995. Schwarzinger, Karl: Katalog der ortsfesten Sonnenuhren in Österreich. Vienna: Österreichischer Astronomischer Verein 1990, 2nd ed. 1993.

20Boerner, Johann Alexander (Hrsg.): Wahre Abbildung Derer Kirchen-Gebaüen und des Heiligtumbs in der Heyl:Röm:Reichs Stadt Nürnberg. Nuremberg 1699, 1702, 1708. Reprint: Die Reichsstadt Nürnberg und ihr Umland um 1700. Hrsg. Wilhelm Schwemmer. Nuremberg: Korn & Berg (Schriftenreihe der Altnürnberger Landschaft, Band XXIX) 1981.

21Delsenbach, Johann Adam: Nürnbergische Prospecten - Vues de Nuremberg. Nuremberg 1785. Reprint: Leipzig: Zentralantiquariat der DDR, Munich: Hugendubel 1986, Abb. Nr. 12.
Schwemmer, Wilhelm: Johann Adam Delsenbach und sein Werk. In: Mitteilungen des Vereins für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg 52 (1963/64), p. 399.

22Fletcher, John E.: Georg Philipp Harsdörffer, Nürnberg und Athanasius Kircher. In: Mitteilungen des Vereins für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg (MVGN) 59 (1972), p. 203.

23Harsdörfer, Georg Philipp; Schwenter, Daniel Deliciae Physico-Mathematicae oder Mathemat: vnd Philosophische Erquickstunden, darinnen sechshundert dreyundsechzig schöne, liebliche und annehmliche Kunststücklein, Auffgaben und Frage, auß der Rechenkunst, Landtmessen, Perspektiv, Naturkündigung, vnd anderen Wissenschafften genomen ... Nuremberg 1636, 1651.

24Kircher, Athanasius: Ars magna lucis et umbrae, Rome 1645.

25Jürgensen, Renate: Utile cum dulci = Mit Nutzen erfreulich: die Blütezeit des Pegnesischen Blumenordens in Nürnberg 1644 bis 1744. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1994.
Studies by Emmy Rosenfeld and Miesen. The Nuremberg School (Harsdörffer, Klaj and Birken), Die Pegnitzschäfer (Reclam). Studies of Harsdörffer and Klaj by W. Kayser and K. Wiedemann.
Klaj, Johann: Redeoratorien und 'Lobrede der teutschen Poeterey'. Nuremberg: Endter 1644. Reprint: Hrsg. von Conrad Wiedemann. Tübingen: Niemeyer 1965.

26'Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft' (fruit bearing society), founded in 1600/17 in Weimar after the idea of the 'Accademia della crusca' in Florence (1582). Martin Opitz and Sigmund von Birken were important members; cf. the Académie Française was founded in 1635.

27Kügel, Werner: Geschichte und Gedichte des Pegnesischen Blumenordens. Erstes Buch 1699-1794. Nuremberg: Wilhelm Tümmel 1998.


29Harsdörffer, Georg Philipp: Poetischer Trichter/ Die Deutsche Dicht- und Reimkunst/ ohne Behuf der lateinischen Sprache/ in VI. Stunden einzugiessen. Nuremberg 1648-1653.
Reprint: Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1969.

30Adler, Jeremy; Ernst, Ulrich: Text als Figur. Visuelle Poesie von der Antike bis zur Moderne. Weinheim: VCH 2. Aufl. 1988.

31Vogt, Hans-Heinrich: Der Nürnberger Trichter: Lernmaschinen für ein Kind? Stuttgart: Franckh 1966.

June 20, 2001